The climate in Brazil varies a lot depending on where you are. It is considered to harbour six climatic regions: equatorial, semi-arid, tropical, highland-tropical, sub-tropical and temperate. Although 90% of the country has a tropical climate most people live in areas that are not or has moderating aspects like winds or altitude. To give you an idea:
Highland-tropical: Brasilia, São Paulo, and Belo Horizonte (altitude makes it colder)
Tropical with trade winds: Rio de Janeiro, Vitoria, Recife, and Salvador (the winds make it colder)
Sub-tropical: Porto Alegre and Curitiba
Climate in Brazil – Temperatures
The coldest regions of Brazil is the South, in this temperate region the temperatures go below freezing in the winter. North of that is the sub-tropical region that averages 18°C. From Rio de Janeiro all along the coast up to Recife you have an average of about 25°C. The hottest region is the Northeast (milder along the coast) where temperatures of 38°C is not uncommon during the summer. The Amazon (which is in the North) has a very stable climate of about 25°C and rarely sweltering heat. The seasonal changes are large in the South and almost non existant in the North. When you talk about the climate in Brazil you have to consider what part of the country you mean.
Climate in Brazil – Precipitation
Rainfall varies a lot over the different parts. I have made a list below to make that clear, note that these are generalisations and there are great regional variations; where there is Atlantic rainforest it rains more etc.:
The Amazon: On average 2000-3000mm per year. There is a annual three to five month dry season when it rains less; the timing of that varies with location.
The Northeast: On average 500-1000mm per year and is the driest part of Brazil. Coupled with the fact that it is very hot and the evaporation rate is high, has lead to several droughts (on average one every seven years). The dry season is between July and January.
Inland: On average 1500-2000mm per year. There is a dry season roughly between May and September.
The South: On average 1500mm per year. Has no real dry season even though January, February and March see more rain.
The Rest: On average 1000-1500mm per year. Most other parts of Brazil receives moderate rainfall and a wet season December until April.
In the South snow is common in the winter. It is rare in Minas Gerias and Rio de Janeiro but occur in the mountainous regions.
If you have something you want to add or change to this section just let me know. The climate in Brazil is a big topic, I’m well aware I might have gotten something wrong.